The Gabonese striker opened the scoring with his 15th Premier League goal of the season before Nicolas Pepe doubled the advantage three minutes later.
Mesut Ozil and Alexandre Lacazette's late strikes made the scoreline look more convincing for the Gunners as they sealed their biggest win since February 2019 and only their second under Arteta in the league.
The win comes after Arteta took the squad for a week-long training camp in Dubai in an attempt to drill in his philosophy of quick passing and intense pressing.
Captain Aubameyang praised the Spaniard's approach and believes the squad are heading in the right direction under Arteta after a dismal run of form under predecessor Unai Emery.
"We feel better," he told Sky Sports.
"We have a better idea of playing that's very clear. We try to maintain this level and we're happy to keep going like this."
Arsenal looked to be heading towards another frustrating game at home after struggling to create chances in the first half.
But Arteta revealed a half-time team-talk helped bring about their first win since New Year's Day - and singled out Lacazette after ending his goal drought.
"We wanted to put draws into wins and the home form is going to be vital," he said.
"It was a little bit slow and you can get frustrated but we started to manage the game better after 25 minutes, had a talk at half time and improved in the second half.
"In the final third we were poor in the first 25 minutes. The most important thing is the reaction of all the players and staff towards him [Alexandre Lacazette], the players, everybody really likes him he works so hard for the team."