After the discovery in California of 10 children who had been imprisoned and tortured by their mother and her partner, here are some other similar cases from recent years.
- California: 13 held captive -
In January 2018, 13 malnourished brothers and sisters, aged from two to 29, were discovered by police after being allegedly held captive for years by their parents near Los Angeles.
Several of the children were found shackled with chains and padlocks in their filthy, foul-smelling home.
One of the girls, aged 17, had managed to sound the alarm.
The parents, David and Louise Turpin, have been charged with multiple counts of torture and child abuse. They have been banned from having any contact with their children until 2021.
- Japan: mentally handicapped girl -
A couple was arrested at Osaka in 2017 for imprisoning their daughter for more than 15 years from the aged of 16 or 17, saying she was mentally ill and violent.
She froze to death at the age of 33 and an autopsy showed she weighed about 19 kilogrammes (42 pounds).
- Britain: guru and daughter -
In London a Maoist cult leader, who brainwashed and raped followers in his London commune, kept his own daughter imprisoned for three decades before she escaped in 2013.
Aravindan Balakrishnan, 75, was jailed in 2016 for 23 years. His daughter Katy Morgan-Davies was 30 years old when she escaped, fearing death.
- Italy: locked up for having child -
Maria Monaco was set free in 2008 after being locked in by her family for 18 years. Police found her, aged 47, living in "horrendous hygiene conditions" in a rural home north of Naples.
She had been held since 1990 when her family learned she was pregnant and refused to divulge the name of the father.
She was freed after police received an anonymous tip-off.
Her son, aged 17, was allowed to live a normal life and went to school.
- Austria: seven babies with father -
Elisabeth Fritzl was imprisoned and raped over 24 years by her father Josef Fritzl, who kept her in the cellar of their family home west of Vienna until 2008.
The case came to light when one of the seven children she bore became ill and had to be hospitalised.
Found guilty of murder for the death of one of Elisabeth's babies as well as incest, sequestration, grievous assault and 3,000 instances of rape, Josef Fritzl was jailed for life in 2009.