The home secretary tweeted on Sunday describing the rapper’s posts as “abhorrent” and revealed that she had asked the social networks for an explanation for why they were not taken down sooner.
“The antisemitic posts from Wiley are abhorrent,” Patel said.
“They should not have been able to remain on Twitter and Instagram for so long and I have asked them for a full explanation.
“Social media companies must act much faster to remove such appalling hatred from their platforms.”
Twitter faced criticism after Wiley’s tweets were still visible 12 hours after they were first posted. They have since been removed.
Police are investigating the comments, which the musician also made on Instagram, on Friday that led to him being banned from both for seven days.
One post on an unverified Twitter account in Wiley's name, which his now former manager John Woolf confirmed belonged to the star, read: "I would challenge the whole world of Jewish community on my own I am not scared I can handle them."
He also posted an Instagram video in which he said: "Crawl out from under your little rocks and defend your Jewish privilege."
Twitter previously said Wiley's account had been temporarily locked "for violating our hateful conduct policy", while Facebook said there was "no place for hate speech on Instagram".
MPs, celebrities and campaigners are set to stage a 48-hour Twitter "walkout" over the social media giant's handling of anti-Semitic posts from 9am on Monday.
Those said to be supporting the protest action include Labour MP Dame Margaret Hodge, Conservative MP Tom Tugendhat, historian Simon Schama and TV presenter Rachel Riley.
Labour MP Jess Phillips said: "Just seen all the Wiley stuff. Why on earth have @Twitter left up such blatant antisemitism and hatred? It hits all the dangerous beats, Jews get things you don't get, they are in control, they think their better... This is dangerous stuff. Surely it should come down."