Fast bowler Peter Siddle and batsman Shaun Marsh were the biggest names to miss out as all-rounders Ashton Agar, Hilton Cartwright and paceman Billy Stanlake received their first Australia national contracts on Monday.
The list of 20 men's players offered deals for the 2017-18 season on the basis of their performances over the past 12 months was released Monday by Cricket Australia.
All-rounder James Faulkner, wicketkeeper Peter Nevill, Marsh, spinner Steve O'Keefe and 62-Test veteran Siddle, who last played in November, were all overlooked.
"Hilton has thoroughly earned his spot in the list this year," chief selector Trevor Hohns said, adding that he was the second highest runs scorer in the Sheffield Shield last season.
"He is an exciting prospect for Australian cricket and we look forward to seeing him perform for Australia in the coming 12 months, if given his opportunity."
Hohns also praised Agar as "a talented young player who we consider offers a fantastic package with his batting, bowling and fielding".
Tall Queensland paceman Stanlake is seen as one for the future.
"We want to be able to monitor his progress in the coming 12 months, not dissimilar to what we have done with Pat Cummins in the past,” said Hohns.
Young batsmen Matthew Renshaw and Peter Handscomb were on the list following their breakthroughs into Test cricket last season.
Hohns said the players rewarded with contracts were seen as playing a part in next season's home Ashes tour against England and an away Test series against South Africa.
No contract figures are yet available while negotiations continue between CA and the Australian Cricketers Association over a new pay agreement.
The minimum value of a contract for the 2016-17 season was Aus$270,000.
Contracted list: Ashton Agar, Jackson Bird, Hilton Cartwright, Pat Cummins, Aaron Finch, Peter Handscomb, Josh Hazlewood, Travis Head, Usman Khawaja, Nathan Lyon, Mitchell Marsh, Glenn Maxwell, James Pattinson, Matthew Renshaw, Steve Smith, Billy Stanlake, Mitchell Starc, Matthew Wade, David Warner, Adam Zampa.