The Argentine has conceded the £115million midfielder, who broke the British transfer record this summer moving from Brighton, has not been at his best for his new club.
Caicedo was at the centre of a fierce bidding war between the Blues and Liverpool, but the situation has had a negative impact on the player.
With his future uncertain for much of the summer, Caicedo was unable to play or train as he liked during pre-season as he forced through a move and Pochettino says the player is still adapting to his new club.
“Before this press conference, he was in my office for twenty minutes,” Pochettino told reporters. “It is easy because we speak Spanish. It is a subconscious process and that is a problem - only in time can you adapt.”
He added: “We had no pre-season with him. We talk about footballers; it is physical and mental, and there is the talent. If you want to express your talent, you need to be clear in your mind and be good in your legs; otherwise, it is not possible to move.”
Long-haul international flights in September, October and November have also slowed Caicedo's progress as he travelled across the globe with Ecuador, and even returned late from the most recent international break.
Pochettino explained: “Travelling to South America is tough, two or three weeks with us - 25 or 30 days - and then away for 10 or 12 days.
“Then, he came back with some issues with his knee. That didn’t help. It is not an excuse; it is the reality - we need time.”
Caicedo on Sunday faces his former club for the first time since leaving as Chelsea look to make amends for what Pochettino has described as their worst performance of the season at Newcastle.
Chelsea conceded three goals in an alarming 30-minute collapse to lose 4-1, captain Reece James picked up two yellow cards to be sent off and Marc Cucurella got his fifth booking of the season to be suspended this weekend.
The Blues have already picked up 44 yellow cards and two red cards this season despite being described as "soft" by their manager, who believes both inexperience and frustration are behind his side's ill-discipline.
"When you analyse the team, starting XI or players who come from the bench," he continued. "There’s not too much experience of the Premier League. We are talking about Jackson; he came from a different league.
"He needs to understand the rules have changed and where is the limit to talk with the referee. Like this, many other players, or players who play less than one year. We cannot underestimate the Premier League.
"The Premier League, you can arrive here, but it is the toughest league. Sometimes, as a team, we need to be more mature to manage situations, and then sometimes, we make a mistake.
"There are many factors, but these two are principal. You need to learn quickly; if not, you pay for it."